The principle is to suppress viral DNA, RNA replication, transcription, synthesis, inhibit viral protein expression, synthesis.
The main methods include the physical antivirus method and the chemical antivirus method and the biological antivirus method.
The physical antivirus method is divided into:
1. Having good sterilization
Such as heat, ionizing radiation, microwave, infrared and laser. Thermal, ionizing radiation and microwave sterilization are better and more widely used.
2. Having certain disinfectant effect
Such as ultraviolet and ultrasonic disinfection method. These methods can kill a large number of microorganisms, but it is difficult to achieve the complete sterilization requirement.
3. A method of natural purification
Such as cooling, freezing, drying, etc. Physical disinfectant is limited in the ability to kill microorganisms, and plays a role in natural purification. The cooling and freezing are two concepts. Cooling is lowering the temperature, but not necessarily freezing. When the microbe is cooled, it can die a lot, and the faster it cools, the faster it dies, the faster it dies, the slower the temperature, and the very few deaths that occur. Once the temperature is stable, the death is reduced or stopped. Microorganisms that survive at low temperatures have a lower metabolism and longer survival time.
4. It has sterilizing effect
Such as mechanical elimination, ventilation and filtration, etc. Although the physical disinfection method can not kill microorganism thoroughly, but can remove them from the media, can also have the disinfection effect. Mechanical disinfection method has certain sterilization effect. Commonly used for washing, erasing, brushing, etc. In order to strengthen the sterilizing effect, the surfactant is used in the cleaning operation. The mechanical removal of the surface microorganism can be combined with the daily cleaning work. When cleaning, it is more appropriate to prevent germs from flying in the dust. Ventilation is the dilution and elimination of microorganisms in the air. Natural ventilation is the simplest and economical method of air disinfection. Indoor air is polluted, open doors and Windows ventilated, even in the absence of wind, 1-2 hours can also be harmless.
5. Physical disinfection with auxiliary functions
Such as vacuum, pressure, etc., although it cannot kill microorganisms in its own right, it can create favorable conditions for removing or inhibiting microorganisms. For example, vacuum can remove oxygen from containers and inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Vacuum can increase the temperature of water vapor and enhance its bactericidal action.
Chemical antivirus methods used chemical agents to kill pathogenic microorganisms. The chemical used for disinfection is called chemical disinfectant. Chemical disinfectant can be divided into three categories: liquid disinfectant, solid disinfectant and gas disinfectant, which can be divided into three types:
The bactericidal action can be divided into three kinds:
1. Effective disinfectant is the disinfectant that can kill all kinds of bacteria, fungi and viruses, including bacterial spores, so it is called sterilizing agent. Commonly used efficient disinfectant has plant-based peroxide (peroxide acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, etc.), aldehydes (formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde), ethylene oxide, chlorine disinfectants (organic chlorine, inorganic chlorine), etc.
2. Medium - effect disinfectant refers to the disinfectant that can kill bacteria, fungi and viruses, but can not kill bacterial spores, such as ethanol, phenols, etc.
3. Inefficient disinfectants can kill some bacteria breeding, fungi and virus, can't kill n/med tuberculosis bacili, bacterial spores and resistance strong disinfectant, fungi and viruses such as new jie er die, chlorhexidine, etc.
The method of using some kind of organism to kill or remove pathogenic microorganisms is called biological disinfection. If feces and garbage are fermented, the heat produced by thermophilic bacteria can be used to kill pathogenic microorganisms